image

Key Issues

Cohen Commission Recommendations

Cohen Commission Recommendations – October 31, 2012

The minister’s ultimate decision-making authority 

In relation to Fraser River sockeye, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should follow the principle that the minister is the ultimate authority in decisions about conservation, fisheries management (subject to the Pacific Salmon Treaty), and, within areas of federal jurisdiction, fish habitat. DFO should consistently reflect this principle in all its agreements and processes with First Nations and stakeholders.

DFO’s mandate in relation to wild fish 

In relation to wild fisheries, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should act in accordance with its paramount regulatory objective to conserve wild fish.

DFO’s obligations in relation to net-pen salmon farms 

The Government of Canada should remove from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans’ mandate the promotion of salmon farming as an industry and farmed salmon as a product.

New position of associate regional director general 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should immediately create a new position in the Pacific Region at the associate regional director general level with responsibility for developing and implementing the Wild Salmon Policy implementation plan recommended under Recommendation 5; and supervising the expenditure of funds provided under Recommendation 6 for implementation of the policy.

Wild Salmon Policy implementation plan 

The new associate regional director general should, by March 31, 2013, publish a detailed plan for implementation of the Wild Salmon Policy, stipulating what tasks are required; how they will be performed and by whom; when they will be completed; and how much implementation will cost, as set out in a detailed itemization of costs.

Wild Salmon Policy funding 

The Government of Canada should establish dedicated Wild Salmon Policy funding sufficient to carry out the Department of Fisheries and Oceans’ implementation plan and to cover ongoing operational costs.

Annual report on progress in Wild Salmon Policy implementation 

The new associate regional director general responsible for implementation of the Wild Salmon Policy should, by March 31, 2014, and each anniversary thereafter during implementation, report in writing on progress in implementation of the policy, and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should publish that report on its website. Each annual report should invite responses from First Nations and stakeholders, and all responses should be promptly published on the DFO website.

Wild Salmon Policy: Strategies 2 and 3 

By January 31, 2013, the new associate regional director general should decide whether the Habitat Management Program (Ecosystem Management Branch) or the Science Branch should take the lead role in implementing strategies 2 and 3 and what support should be provided by the other branch. The new associate regional director general should also identify who is responsible for, and set deadlines respecting, the following activities: preparing habitat status reports; monitoring and assessing habitat using the habitat indicators and benchmarks developed by Stalberg et al.; and finalizing habitat indicators and benchmarks where possible. The new associate regional director general should coordinate with the Habitat Management Program to ensure consistency in implementing both this Recommendation and Recommendation 41.

Wild Salmon Policy: Strategy 4 

In order to begin integrated strategic planning under Strategy 4 in relation to Fraser River sockeye without further delay, these key deliverables should be completed according to the following schedule:

By March 31, 2013, identification of red zone Conservation Units under Strategy 1, based on the Grant Draft Paper 2011.

By September 30, 2013, preparation of overview reports for the Fraser River watershed and marine areas relevant to Fraser River sockeye salmon, based on the best available information at that time. Knowledge gaps of concern to the drafters should be identified in the overview reports and a plan developed to address those knowledge gaps.

By December 31, 2013, development of habitat indicators and benchmarks for assessment for the Strait of Georgia, Juan de Fuca Strait, Johnstone Strait, and Queen Charlotte Sound. 

As part of the implementation of Strategy 4 in relation to Fraser River sockeye, these key deliverables should be completed according to the following schedule:

By March 31, 2013, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should complete a socioeconomic framework for decision making in the integrated strategic planning process; it should also integrate meaningful socioeconomic input into fisheries management decision making, beginning with planning for the 2014 fishing season.

By January 31, 2014, integrated strategic planning processes should begin for Fraser River sockeye salmon using the best currently available information and following the procedure outlined in Appendix 2 (A structured five-step planning procedure) of the Wild Salmon Policy.

By March 31, 2013, response teams should be formed for all Conservation Units in the red zone and for those that could significantly limit fishing and other activities.

By December 31, 2014, response teams should complete plans for the protection and restoration of priority Conservation Units, and in developing such plans, they should give full consideration to approaches beyond curtailing fisheries.

Fish health data from salmon farms 

In order to provide a longer time series of data on which to test for relationships between stressors found at salmon farms and the health of Fraser River sockeye salmon, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should continue to require the collection of fish health data directly from operators of salmon farms and through DFO audits. 

For research purposes beyond routine monitoring, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should require, as a condition of licence, that the operator of a salmon farm provide, on reasonable demand by DFO, fish samples, including live fish or fresh silvers (recently deceased fish), in a quantity and according to a protocol specified by DFO. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should give non-government scientific researchers timely access to primary fish health data collected through DFO’s routine monitoring programs, including data that relate to farmed or wild salmon.

Limiting salmon farm production and licence duration 

Beginning immediately and continuing until at least September 30, 2020, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should ensure that

- the maximum duration of any licence issued under the Pacific Aquaculture Regulations for a net-pen salmon farm in the Discovery Islands (fish health sub-zone 3-2) does not exceed one year;

- DFO does not issue new licences for netpen salmon farms in the Discovery Islands (fish health sub-zone 3-2); and

- DFO does not permit increases in production at any existing net-pen salmon farm in the Discovery Islands (fish health sub-zone 3-2). Revising and applying siting criteria for salmon farms 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should explicitly consider proximity to migrating Fraser River sockeye when siting salmon farms. 

After seeking comment from First Nations and stakeholders, and after responding to challenge by scientific peer review, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, by March 31, 2013, and every five years thereafter, revise salmon farm siting criteria to reflect new scientific information about salmon farms situated on or near Fraser River sockeye salmon migration routes as well as the cumulative effects of these farms on these sockeye. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should apply revised siting criteria to all licensed salmon farm sites. Farms that no longer comply with siting criteria should be promptly removed or relocated to sites that comply with current siting criteria.

Re-evaluating risk and mitigation measures for salmon farms 

If at any time between now and September 30, 2020, the minister of fisheries and oceans determines that net-pen salmon farms in the Discovery Islands (fish health sub-zone 3-2) pose more than a minimal risk of serious harm to the health of migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon, he or she should promptly order that those salmon farms cease operations. 

On September 30, 2020, the minister of fisheries and oceans should prohibit net-pen salmon farming in the Discovery Islands (fish health sub-zone 3-2) unless he or she is satisfied that such farms pose at most a minimal risk of serious harm to the health of migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon. The minister’s decision should summarize the information relied on and include detailed reasons. The decision should be published on the Department of Fisheries and Oceans’ website. 

To inform the decision under Recommendation 19, the minister and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should take the following steps:

- Conduct the research and analysis recommended in Recommendation 68 and publish the results of this research.

- Assess any relationships between salmon farming variables compiled in the fish health database and Fraser River sockeye health or productivity.

- Invite from the salmon-farming industry and from other interested parties written submissions respecting the risk that net-pen salmon farms pose to the health of migrating Fraser River sockeye salmon.

- Publish on the DFO website the full text of all submissions received.

- Provide to submitters a reasonable opportunity to respond in writing to other submissions and publish such responses on the DFO website.

Fish health management at salmonid enhancement facilities 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, by September 30, 2013, establish conditions of licence and a monitoring / compliance program in relation to salmonid enhancement facilities which contains the following minimum elements:

- mandatory standard operating practices and record keeping;

- mandatory fish health management plans for all salmon enhancement facilities, whether DFO, provincial, or Community Economic Development Program; and

- audits / site visits of all enhancement facilities at least once per year by a fish health professional. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should establish and maintain a database of enhancement facility fish health – possibly under the Aquaculture Resource Information Management System (ARIMS) that DFO is constructing for salmon farm data. In future years, DFO should use these data to evaluate the effect of diseases and pathogens at fish enhancement facilities on the health of Fraser River sockeye salmon. DFO should provide access to these data to nongovernment scientists for research purposes.

Interactions between Fraser River sockeye and enhanced salmon 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, by September 30, 2013, complete and make public a risk assessment of the interactions of Fraser River sockeye salmon with enhanced salmon in the marine environment. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should work with the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission or an analogous international organization to address potential interactions in the high seas among wild and enhanced salmon from different countries, including developing plans for enhancement regulation and activities.

Integrated Fisheries Management Plan 

Within 30 days of the minister of fisheries and oceans approving the Integrated Fisheries Management Plan (IFMP), the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should make public the rationale for the harvest rules set out in the Fraser River Sockeye Decision Guidelines section of the IFMP.

Escapement target planning

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, by September 30, 2013, complete its planned review of the Fraser River Sockeye Spawning Initiative model and address the criticisms of the model:

- whether the maximum total allowable mortality as a function of run size should be 60 percent;

- whether the model could more explicitly state what values are being weighed and how they are weighed; and

- whether habitat considerations and large escapements could be brought into escapement planning.

Fraser River temperature and flow monitoring 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada should continue to monitor, at not less than 2010 levels, Fraser River temperature and flow.

Test-fishing program 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should continue to contribute to the Pacific Salmon Commission’s test-fishing program so it is capable of operating at the 2010 level.

Funding of hydro-acoustic facilities 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should continue to provide sufficient funding to enable the Pacific Salmon Commission’s hydro-acoustic facility at Mission and DFO’s hydro-acoustic facility at Qualark to operate at the 2010 level.

Selective fishing 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should designate an individual to coordinate scientific, educational, and management efforts in relation to selective fishing practices; and study post-release survival rates for all fisheries.

Fisheries monitoring and catch reporting 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should ensure that all Fraser River sockeye salmon fisheries are monitored at an enhanced level (achieving catch estimates within 5 percent of actual harvest, with greater than 20 percent independent validation). To meet this objective, DFO should: enforce penalties for non-compliance with catch-reporting requirements; confirm the role of fishery officers in reporting illegal harvest numbers to fisheries managers and establish a system to incorporate such numbers into official catch estimates; establish a program for independent catch validation; provide sufficient and stable funding to support enhanced catch-monitoring programs; and treat commercial and Aboriginal economic opportunity fishers equally regarding any requirement of fishers to contribute toward the cost of catch monitoring, subject to any accommodation required in support of an exercise of an Aboriginal right.

Stock assessment 

With respect to escapement enumeration for Fraser River sockeye salmon returning to their spawning grounds, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should continue enumeration at not less than the level of precision recommended by DFO Stock Assessment staff for Fraser River sockeye spawning populations in 2010; and determine the calibration (or expansion index) for spawning populations in the 25,000–75,000 range. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should double, from two to four, the number of lakes in the Fraser River basin in which it conducts annual lake stock assessments as well as annual monitoring programs to estimate fall fry populations. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should allocate funding for stock assessment of other salmon species that share the Fraser River with sockeye salmon. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should support the involvement of members of First Nations in escapement enumeration and other stock assessment activities in their traditional territories.

Definition of food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) fishing 

Following consultation with First Nations, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should articulate a clear working definition for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) fishing; and assess, and adjust if necessary, all existing FSC allocations in accordance with that definition. 

In the context of negotiating an agreement with a specific First Nation, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the First Nation to provide DFO with information on its practices, customs, and traditions that is relevant in determining its food, social, and ceremonial needs.

Share-based management 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, by September 30, 2013, complete its analysis of the socio-economic implications of implementing the various share-based management models for the Fraser River sockeye fishery, decide which model is preferable, and, promptly thereafter, implement that model.

In-river demonstration fisheries 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should conduct the research and analysis necessary to determine whether in-river demonstration fisheries are, or are capable of, achieving tangible conservation benefits or providing economic benefits to First Nations in an economically viable or sustainable way before it takes further action in expanding in-river demonstration fisheries.

Transparency in the reallocation of the commercial Fraser River sockeye salmon fishery 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should develop its future policies and practices on the reallocation of the commercial Fraser River sockeye salmon fishery (including allocations for marine and in-river fisheries) in an inclusive and transparent manner, following a strategic and integrated planning process such as Action Step 4.2 of the Wild Salmon Policy.

Implementation of the 1986 Habitat Policy 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should complete implementation of the 1986 Habitat Policy. By March 31, 2013, DFO should, for the benefit of Fraser River sockeye salmon, set out a detailed plan addressing these points: how DFO will work toward a net gain in productive capacity of Fraser River sockeye habitat by conserving existing habitat, restoring damaged habitat, and developing new habitats; how DFO will measure the amount of productive capacity of Fraser River sockeye habitat in order to assess whether the net gain objective is being achieved on an ongoing basis; how DFO will take into account the cumulative impact on Fraser River sockeye habitat potentially arising from individual projects that are currently considered only on a project-by-project basis, if at all; how the tasks will be performed, and by whom; when the tasks will be completed; and how much implementation will cost, as set out in a detailed itemization of costs. The Habitat Management Program should coordinate with the new associate regional director general (proposed in Recommendation 4) to ensure consistency in implementing this Recommendation and Recommendation 8.

DFO’s Habitat Management Program 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should strengthen the monitoring component of DFO’s Habitat Management Program as follows: Require that project proponents relying on operational statements and best management practices notify DFO before beginning work on their proposed projects. Fully implement compliance monitoring of projects whether or not the projects are reviewed in advance by DFO, including those falling under the Riparian Areas Regulation. Implement effectiveness monitoring, including for activities under the Riparian Areas Regulation. Give Habitat Management Program staff discretion to require, on a project-by-project basis, measures that are additional to those set out in operational statements and best management practices.

Riparian Areas Regulation 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the Province of British Columbia to resolve differences of interpretation on the application of section 9 of the provincial Water Act and the provincial Riparian Areas Regulation to ensure that there are no physical gaps in coverage of the Water Act and the Riparian Areas Regulation. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the Province of British Columbia to continue to monitor compliance with the provincial Riparian Areas Regulation; to conduct effectiveness monitoring of projects completed in compliance with the Riparian Areas Regulation; and to consider DFO’s input into the impact of Riparian Areas Regulation setback variances on fish and fish habitat. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should work with the Province of British Columbia to achieve the Riparian Areas Regulation target of 90 percent compliance with 90 percent confidence levels. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the Province of British Columbia to amend the Riparian Areas Regulation to require provincial approval of setback variances; and to require local governments to enforce compliance with the assessment reports on which development proposals are approved.

Water use in the Fraser River watershed 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the Province of British Columbia to complete modernization of the Water Act, which would include the following points: regulation of groundwater extraction in a manner that addresses the needs of Fraser River sockeye; increased reporting and monitoring of water use; and allocation of sufficient resources to complete the modernization process.

Forestry 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should re-engage in managing the impact of forestry activities on Fraser River sockeye by reviewing proposed forestry activities that may cause harmful alteration, disruption, or destruction of fish habitat under section 35 of the Fisheries Act, protocols for receiving operational plans / referrals, riparian standards for small streams and their tributaries, and the circumstances in which watershed assessments are required; and identifying an individual in DFO with regional responsibility to serve as forestry contact person for the Pacific Region to provide support to Habitat Management Program area offices, to provide a consistent approach throughout the region with respect to forestry activities and referrals, and to select policy issues and make recommendations to senior management.

Marine habitat spill response 

Responsibility for decision making about post-emergency mitigation and long-term monitoring of the impact of marine spills should be moved from the Canadian Coast Guard to the Environment Canada co-chair of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team. 

Membership of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team should always include the Department of Fisheries and Oceans’ Habitat Management Program (Ecosystem Management Branch)* and Science staff. 

The Environment Canada co-chair of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team should, when considering whether to follow the team’s advice regarding post-emergency mitigation and long-term monitoring, take account of the impact of the marine spill on fish and fish habitat, logistics, ecosystem values, cost recovery, and socioeconomic effects. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should identify an individual in DFO who has regional responsibility to act as a liaison with the Canadian Coast Guard, Environment Canada, and the Province of British Columbia on marine habitat spill response.

Contaminants monitoring 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada should co-operate in regularly testing and monitoring fresh and marine water for contaminants of emerging concern and for endocrine-disrupting chemicals affecting Fraser River sockeye salmon.

Pesticides 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should encourage the Province of British Columbia to require users of pesticides in forestry and agriculture to record, and report annually to the province, the areas where pesticides were applied and the amounts used; and to develop and maintain a pesticide-use database that includes information on location, volume / concentration, and timing of use, and make that information publicly available.

Pulp and paper, metal mining, and municipal wastewater effluents

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada should co-operatively ensure that environmental quality monitoring and environmental effects monitoring related to pulp and paper, metal mining, and municipal wastewater discharges include consideration of Fraser River sockeye salmon, and the two federal departments should work with the Province of British Columbia and with regional and municipal governments to that end; work with BC municipalities on a public education campaign aimed at reducing toxicants in municipal wastewater, especially pharmaceuticals and personal-care products; and immediately recommence their participation in the Metro Vancouver Environmental Monitoring Committee. 

Canada should promptly finalize the Wastewater Systems Effluent Regulations to include public reporting on environmental effects monitoring results; ongoing environmental effects monitoring requirements similar to those found in the Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations and in the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations; and environmental effects monitoring of contaminants of emerging concern and endocrine-disrupting chemicals discharging from large wastewater treatment facilities. 

Canada should finalize a regulatory strategy to limit the impact of wastewater biosolids on fisheries resources.

Fisheries enforcement priorities and funding

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should, at a minimum, fund its enforcement activities, including overflight, on-the-ground, and on-the-water fishery officer presence, to ensure the same level of enforcement that was achieved in response to the Honourable Bryan Williams’s 2004 Southern Salmon Fishery Post- Season Review, plus amounts necessary for aquaculture-related enforcement.

Responsibility for administration of section 36 of the Fisheries Act 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada should, by September 30, 2013, renegotiate their relationship in regard to Environment Canada’s responsibility to enforce section 36 of the Fisheries Act in the Pacific Region in accordance with the 2009 report from the office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development. Clarification should include each department’s respective roles and responsibilities with respect to communication, sharing of information, and joint planning of Fisheries Act activities. 60 The Department of Fisheries and Oceans and Environment Canada should improve the ability of their on-the-ground staff to co-operate and respond to occurrences by conducting joint training and joint investigation post-mortems and by sharing resources and expenses in remote locations where feasible.

Powers of inspection 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should restore powers of inspection to Habitat Management Program staff.

Specialized habitat fishery officer 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should re-establish within the Conservation and Protection Branch in the Pacific Region at least one specialized habitat fishery officer whose duties would include acting as the go-to person for habitat occurrences and investigations throughout the region; working closely with the Habitat Management Program with access to its Program Activity Tracking for Habitat database; overseeing the training and mentoring of fishery officers for habitat investigations; and recording habitat occurrences and ensuring that there are responses to them.

The “mortally wounded” clause 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should not include in fishing licences a clause that allows for retention of “mortally wounded” Fraser River sockeye salmon.

Mortality of Fraser River sockeye salmon during downstream migration 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should undertake or commission research on Fraser River sockeye salmon smolts at the mouth of the Fraser River estuary, before they enter the Strait of Georgia, to determine stock / Conservation Unit abundance, health, condition, and rates of mortality.

Marine survival of Fraser River sockeye salmon 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should undertake or commission research, in collaboration with academic researchers and, if possible, the Pacific Salmon Commission or another appropriate organization, into where and when significant mortality occurs in the nearshore marine environment, through studies of the outmigration from the mouth of the Fraser River through to the coastal Gulf of Alaska, including the Strait of Georgia, Juan de Fuca Strait, the west coast of Vancouver Island, Johnstone Strait, Queen Charlotte Sound, and Hecate Strait. Studies should examine abundance, health, condition, and rates of mortality of Fraser River sockeye salmon; biological, chemical, and physical oceanographic variables, including water temperature, the presence or absence of harmful algal blooms, and disease; predators, pathogens, competition, and interactions with enhanced salmon affecting Fraser River sockeye salmon; and contaminants, especially contaminants of emerging concern, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and complex mixtures. 

66 In furtherance of Canada’s understanding about what regulates Fraser River sockeye abundance and distribution, Canada should propose an international, integrated ecosystem research program to measure biological, chemical, and physical oceanographic variables in the offshore Gulf of Alaska. Some or all of the research would be conducted in collaboration with academic researchers, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), and/or the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission.

Fish health 

The fish health research priorities of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans should reflect its responsibility for the conservation of wild fish. To that end, DFO’s science managers should encourage innovation and new research into novel diseases and other conditions affecting wild fish, beyond the interests of specific “clients” such as the Canadian Food Inspection Agency or aquaculture management. 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should undertake or commission research into the health of Fraser River sockeye salmon, including the following issues: determining, in conjunction with the research proposed in Recommendations 64 and 65, what pathogens are encountered by Fraser River sockeye salmon along their entire migratory route, and the cumulative effects of these pathogens on Fraser River sockeye salmon; the hypothesis that diseases are transmitted from farmed salmon to wild sockeye; the hypothesis that diseases are transmitted from salmonid enhancement facility salmon to wild sockeye; and the thresholds of sea lice infection and resilience in sockeye and the patterns of sea lice distribution and infection on juvenile sockeye.

Harrison River sockeye population 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should undertake or commission research into the life history of the Harrison River sockeye population.

Research into regional production dynamics 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should initiate, along with the appropriate state agencies in Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, a long-term working group devoted to coordinating the collection and analysis of data on the productivity of their sockeye salmon populations. The working group should invite a knowledgeable and independent entity, such as the Pacific Salmon Commission, to act as coordinator for the working group.

Cumulative effects 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should develop and carry out a research strategy to assess the cumulative effects of stressors on Fraser River sockeye salmon and their habitats. Cumulative effects may include multiple sources of a stressor, exposure to stressors over the life cycle of Fraser River sockeye, or exposure to multiple types of stressors interacting in a cumulative manner.

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should consider the cumulative effects of stressors on Fraser River sockeye health and habitat in its management of fisheries and fish habitat.

Inventory of Fraser River sockeye salmon research 

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans should develop and maintain a central inventory of information about existing and new Fraser River sockeye salmon research, including who has custody of it and where it can be located. DFO should make the inventory available to the public, and make the information in the inventory available to non-DFO scientific researchers.

Improving future sustainability by addressing the causes of warming waters 

To improve future sustainability of the Fraser River sockeye, the Government of Canada should champion, within Canada and internationally, reasonable steps to address the causes of warming waters and climate change.

Implementation of this Commission’s recommendations 

An independent body such as the office of the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development should report to the Standing Committee on Fisheries and Oceans and to the public as follows:

- By March 31, 2014, and every two years thereafter during implementation of the Wild Salmon Policy, on progress in implementing the policy in relation to Fraser River sockeye salmon.

- By September 30, 2015, on the extent to which and the manner in which this Commission’s recommendations have been implemented.